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The question is what exactly triggers one derivation or the other. Optionality is not a desirable solution Chomsky Weak pronouns are deficient when compared to DPs or demonstrative pronouns, which can be stressed, can be co-ordinated, and can be modified.

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Because they are deficient, they are syntactically dependent on their case assigner, i. When the particle moves out of the PrtP to incorporate to V, it can no longer govern the weak pronoun directly. The only solution for the weak pronoun is to move to [Spec PrtP], where the verb can govern it directly. This analysis can account for the behaviour of it but it cannot explain why other pronouns, which are not weak pronouns, behave just like it with respect to phrasal transitive predicates.

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Nothing is said about the incompatibility of double object constructions with phrasal transitives. But the internal structure which they assume is different. In Kaynethe first analysis which assumes a small clause within the structure of phrasal trnsitives, it is not the verb which forms a unit with the particle, but the postverbal DP.

John looked [SC the information up]. Small clauses are excluded from derived nominals, as illustrated in 23b : 23 a.

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John considers [Mary beautiful]. The ungrammaticality of 25b can be accounted for if we take [the back of the closet our last hiding place] in 25 a as a small clause Kayne : 25 a.


That makes the back of the closet our last hiding place. The data in 25 provide evidence that small clauses do not allow extraction of a subpart of the post-verbal DP. Let us consider the sentences in 26which contain a phrasal transitive taken from Kayne : 26 a. Semantically, the small clause is interpreted as expressing a result. For example, in 27athe small clause [the light off] denotes the result of the action the predicate refers to.

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The same interpretation applies to the other small clauses in 27 : 27 27 a. They turned [the light off]. He filled [my glass up]. They threw [their books away]. The cold weather wore [them out]. Inside this small clause, the DP is the subject of the particle. The verb takes a small clause object, not a DP one.

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But particles are not case assigners. In order to explain how the subject DP inside the small clause is case-marked, Kayne takes a single small clause boundary as being irrelevant to government.

This allows the verb to govern into the SC, i. But, if two small clause boundaries intervene between the verb and the DP, government is blocked and, consequently, case can no longer be assigned.

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In 28 above, we actually have two small clauses: [John the tools] and [ [John the tools] down], i. The subject of this small clause cannot be governed by the verb, because there are two small clause boundaries in between the verb and the DP: 29 We handed [[ John the tools] down].

When the particle surfaces in front of the noun. Kayne proposes that it is the DP which moves. The DP which moves is required to be at least as heavy as the element over which it moves. We do not expect pronouns to move over particles, a fact which is borne out by the data. We saw that the small clause analysis can explain case assignment, it can explain why phrasal verbs are incompatible with the double object construction, why pronouns must always occur in between the verb and the particle, as well as why heavy DPs must move to the right of the particle.

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What the analysis cannot answer, though, is why with ordinary DPs there are two strategies available: the DP may choose to stay in situ or it may choose to move out of the small clause. This raises at least two problems. Firstly, optionality is undesirable Chomsky Secondly, more recent studies focus on the fact that movement must be triggered by certain properties associated either with the moving element, with the landing site, or with both.

The small clause analysis does not provide an explanation for why the postverbal DP moves to the right of the particle. Moreover, movement can only be to the left. Assuming that the DP moves rightward requires further evidence in favour of the availability of rightward movement. Den Dikken also adopts a small clause analysis of phrasal transitives. He starts from the definition of particles as intransitive prepositions, i.

However, it captures one important property of particles: they are intransitive prepositions and, given their functional status, they do not project a Specifier. The Specifier position is justified as a result of movement alone Baker Another relevant property of phrasal transitives which has been invoked in the literature is that their meaning is resultative.

They are interpreted as a process whose outcome is denoted by the small clause. The PrtP, i. He filled up my glass.

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She put on his hat. They turned off oc misiunea de pierdere în greutate viejo light. Following Kayneden DikkenSvenonius I adopt the view that phrasal transitives select a small clause as their complement. Capitalizing on the idea that particles are intransitive prepositions, I take this small clause as being of the form [Prt DP] on analogy with prepositional phrases see also den Dikken for a similar analysis.

The predication relation inside the small clause is one between the DP and the particle, just like inside unaccusative configurations, where the only argument is the internal one, base-generated in complement position. The status of this small clause is that of a PrtP and its meaning is resultative: 35 V [PrtP Prt DP] Following KayneI take the small clause boundary as transparent to government and case assignment.

I also claim that the particle cannot assign case, which does not qualify it as a proper governor.

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It can then intervene between the verb and the DP without being a barrier. This will solve the case assignment problem: the verb which is a transitive verb, i. This can explain why other elements, such as the modifiers straight or right are banned. The newspapers whipped up sympathy for them.

They attempted to drum up support for the students. Collins Cobuild Pronouns are inherently no-choice DPs, i. The choice of oc misiunea de pierdere în greutate viejo value for the variable which they introduce is narrowed down to one single entity Farkas Abstract nouns, on the other hand, are at the other end of the scale of determinacy of reference; they do not have determined reference. There is evidence from various languages that features such as determinacy of reference are closely related to movement to the left periphery.

One could say, by analogy, that the movement of the DP to postverbal position in front of Prt is related to features such as determinacy of reference. Chen argues that the position in between the verb and the particle is conventionally associated with familiar elements. We could tentatively conclude that when the DP is a topic, or has topiclike properties, it will move in front of Prt. Unfamiliar, unpredictable information tends to be placed at the end of the sentence.

But longer elements are more likely to contain new, unfamiliar information and 31 consequently to be placed in focus position, at the end of the clause Bolinger They occur in sentence final position because they contain new information. At the opposite end of the scale, old or given information does not necessarily need many modifiers.

When the DP has topic-like features, when it is high on the determinacy of reference scale, on analogy with movement to the left periphery in various languages, the DP will move to the left-most position inside the small clause: 38 V [ PrtP Prt DP] Definite nouns are higher on the determinacy scale than indefinites.

Consequently, we should expect more definite DPs to occur in between the V and the Prt, prediction which is borne out by the data: 39 What would you like to do? Svenonius mentions that particle shift in English has been compared to scrambling in Dutch, object shift in Icelandic, i. Pronouns are very high on the determinacy of reference scale.

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When they receive contrastive focus, though, they no longer qualify as topics and remain in situ. Conclusions I put forth an analysis according to which the D-Structure of a phrasal transitive is the one below: D-Structure: V [PrtP Prt DP] The claim is that the transitive verb selects a small clause as its complement.

In this, I follow the line of Kayne and implicitly assume the evidence he provides in favour of a small clause analysis of this constituent, as well as his explanation for why phrasal verbs are not good double object construction candidates. The Prt is defined oc misiunea de pierdere în greutate viejo an ergative preposition whose Specifier position can only be projected as a result of movement.

The structure V Prt DP does not imply any movement. When the DP is high on the determinacy of reference scale, it has to move to a higher projection to check its topic -like features. This will result in the structure V DP Prt. It can also deal with case-assignment without assuming particle incorporation. DP-movement is not triggered by case requirement, since the DP can receive case inside the small clause from oc misiunea de pierdere în greutate viejo governing verb.

This is why I suggest that the PrtP has a deficient left periphery, which contains a Topic Phrase defined as in Rizzi MIT, Chomsky, N. Syntax and the Pragmasemantics of the Noun Phrase.

Antwerp University, February Haegeman, L. Guéron: English Grammar.

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Guéron, H-O. Obenauer, J-Y. Pollock eds. Grammatical Representation, Dordrecht: Foris, Quirk, R. Leech, S. Greenbaum, J. Haegeman ed. Clear objectives are to be taken into consideration as the first and most important step in the teaching process. They can become the guidelines of teaching from the beginning to the final difficult problem of evaluation.

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We point out the importance of writing whole texts, not writing activities leading to consolidation of new structures and vocabulary, the so-called sentence level reinforcement exercises.

A curriculum towards efficient writing should have as an ultimate goal, the development of the strategies that allow efficient writing of whole texts as contextualized and appropriate pieces of communication. By the present we intend to shift the emphasis on the process involved in producing a text, rather than on the finished text.